December 14, 2018

Essay on Measles and Rubella

Essay on Measles and Rubella

INTRODUCTION
Rubella is a common infection in many parts of the world. There is ongoing efforts to eliminate the disease globally by World Health Organisation (WHO). Every year 40,000 rubella syndrome cases occurs in India. Like India have eliminated polio, tetanus and jaws in this decade, it has set a target to eliminate syndrome caused by rubella virus by 2020.

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ABOUT MEASLES AND RUBELLA
Rubella or German measles is an infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. There is a mild impact of virus, making it hard to realise if a person is affected from it or not. Measles is highly infectious and is one of the major childhood killer disease. Unlike measles, rubella is a mild viral infection that mainly occurs in children. But a women infected with the rubella virus during the early stage of pregnancy has a high chance of transmitting it to the foetus.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Symptoms similar to flu. Primary symptoms include rashes on the the face which later spread to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include fever, swollen glands, joint pain, headache. Rubella can affect anyone of any age. It causes Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Rashes developed can sometimes be itchy. It also affect the health of child if pregnant women is affected with the infection. The virus can cause hearing impairments, eye and heart defect and brain damage in newborn.

HOW IT SPREAD
Usually it spread through air via cough of people who are infected with the virus. Only humans are infected. Once recovered, people are immune to further infection.

PREVENTION
Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine. Often it is given in combination with measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as MMR vaccine. WHO A single dose of rubella vaccine gives more than 95% long-lasting immunity.

INDIA: To end Measles-Rubella infection by 2020

Measles-rubella is one of the major infectious disease in India. India has set a target to eliminate the disease by 2020. Measles rubella vaccination campaign is being introduced in phases in various states. Following the campaign, two doses of the combination vaccine will become a part of the National Immunisation Programme. All children will receive free two doses.

To Eliminate the disease, the vaccine coverage has to be over 95%. India has to ramp up surveillance of both diseases. Maintain outbreak preparedness, respond quickly to outbreaks by vaccinating all children in a community and ensure effective and timely treatment of cases anywhere in the country.

CONCLUSION
The current MR vaccination campaign is the first time that the union health ministry is introducing rubella vaccine in the Universal Immunization Programme. According to WHO, the elimination of measles will help India to achieve its sustainable development goals.

December 13, 2018

Essay on Save Fuel for Better Environment

Essay on Save Fuel for Better Environment

INTRODUCTION
Human beings are blessed with abundant natural resources. Fuels are an important component of such natural resources. They provide us energy for various purposes such as transportation, Industrial purposes, cooking etc. Heavy reliance on non renewable fuels will not only deplete them in few years, but are also polluting our environment. Hence, to protect our environment, we need to look for alternative fuels. Also, we should save fuel and shift towards renewable and clean energy resources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass, etc.

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Our mother earth provide us with plenty of energy resources such as coal, petroleum, natural gas etc. Most of them are non renewable in nature, that is, they cannot be renewed again once finished. Human greed have led to rampant use of such valuable resource.


By Pixabay
We use fuels for various purposes input day-to-day life. Transportation of goods and masses require petroleum and Diesel, electricity generation require burning of coal in thermal power plant and cooking require LPG gas, etc. Industries and manufacturing require fuels for their working. Thus, for the growth and development of any country, energy is of utmost importance.

Rapid burning of fossil fuels such as coal resulted into increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Global warming is leading to climate change. Climate change is resulting in various undesirable phenomena such as melting of glaciers across globe leasing to sea level rise, submergence of island nation, forest fires, drought, agricultural failure because of pest attacks and going incidences of vector borne diseases such as malaria, dengue etc.

Also, release of harmful gases during mining are polluting our environment. Air pollution in New Delhi is the foremost example. Pollution is leading to many types of lungs and heart disease, especially among children and adults. Thus, it is a global health concern. And we must seriously look into this issue.

Heavy reliance on oil is also a major problem India is facing. We are importing more than 80% of our oil requirements. It add to the expenditure on public purse.

At an individual level, we should reduce our consumption. We should use public transportations while commuting. We should switch off fan and lights when we are not using them. We should also adopt solar panels for rooftop electricity generation.

Therefore, in order to maintain the sustainability of energy resources and purity of our environment, it is important that countries should do following things. First, they should try to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels. Secondly, countries should try to adopt clean energy resources such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro electricity etc. Thirdly, public transportation should be preferably citizens instead of private vehicle. Fourthly, government should shift transportation towards electric mobility.

CONCLUSION
Thus, in order to ensure that the coming generation do not face the threat of climate change and energy insecurity we all must act now. Like we have recovered from the ozone layer depletion. We must also collaborate on climate change issue constructively. It is wisely said, “nature respects those who respect nature”.

Essay on Road Safety (~ 500 words)

Essay on Road Safety

INTRODUCTION
Road safety is a major concern in India. Every year many people get injured and many lost their lives in road accidents. Such accidents occurs because of multiple reasons such as over speeding, not following safety rule, potholes on roads, drunk driving etc. Building good roads with proper maintenance is the need of the hour. Traffic rules should be strictly enforced. Children should not let loose on the streets. Road infrastructure needs to be upgraded. Only by doing these activities we can ensure that roads are safe for us and our children.

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Road safety is problem in India because every year many people injured or died on streets due to accidents. The new roads construction is taking place rapidly. Increase in the income level of people make it easy for them to buy new vehicles such as car, motorcycle etc. Because of increase in number of vehicles on road, accidents have increased rapidly.

Many young people drive motorcycle at very high speed leading to fatal accidents. Drunk driving is the leading cause of accidents of trucks in India.

Apart from these, safety rules are also not followed properly in India. Use of indicator, waiting at red lights, limiting speeds and wearing helmets or seat belts are few of the safety rules. Often people give bribe to traffic policeman when caught.

Road infrastructure is also a major factor in road accidents. Roads are rarely repaired. Poor quality roads gets washed away after monsoon. Lack of proper signboards, two way lanes adds to the problem.

Apart from humans, many animals die on road everyday. Because most roads in India passes through fields. Stray animal roam to and fro on the roads.

To curb the increasing road accidents in India, we should do following things :
  • Government should ensure proper roads are built and maintained. Potholes are fixed at the earliest. Traffic rules are followed. Driving license should be given only after proper verification. Drunk drivers should be punished. Overbridge and underbridge should be constructed at critical junction.
  • Parents should ensure that their children are not driving very fast on roads. Small children are crossing roads properly.
  • Students should ensure that they learn to drive properly and also to follow safety rules properly.
  • Traffic policeman should work without taking bribes. Penalty should be imposed on those breaking the law.
  • To keep stray animals away, proper barricades needs to be constructed. Animals corridors should be created to prevent man animal conflict.
  • Digital technologies can be used to prevent accidents on roads.
CONCLUSION
Thus, there is a need to create awareness about the hazard of road accidents. We all should act responsibly in our own capacity. We cannot lose our precious life in hurry. Its rightly said, “it's better late than never”.